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We want to help you choose the right stand designer and builder for you, free of cost. There is no where else that you can find countries being represented all under one roof.

They bring the best and only the best kind of trends for your every need. Meeting up twice a year, there are more than 60, insiders who come each time.

Offering exclusive collections of every sector possible, they count on 85 years of experience and greatness.

This high-fashioned world is filled with outstanding collections, no matter the price limit, there is something for everyone.

Plenty of networking events, high-tech seminars and many more styles of upcoming season. Check this event if you want to be on top of the game.

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GlobalShop is the only show that you can find everything you need about retail design and shopper marketing. As it is the biggest in the world, you can find a great deal of store fixture companies and more solutions available than any other place.

Innovative shows, creative solutions and powerful conferences all under one place. This is where you need to be to push your company forward.

Book a stand and come to us to get the best stand designers there are. As you focus on designing, planning and marketing for your company, you are able to get the right tools you need here.

Stay ahead of your game and see success happen right before your eyes. Benefit from the great education program, networking and hospitality events that all have to do with home furnishings at Las Vegas Market.

This expo is remarkable as it brings together over 1, exhibitors who bring diversity to the whole industry. Be sure to be part of this great event.

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With more than , square-feet and over 70 showrooms from leading mattress and bedding suppliers, come to Las Vegas for the forward-thinking trends that the bedding industry is known for.

The International Travel Goods Show piles up hundreds of manufacturers, distributors, trend-setters, travel writers and business executives all in one place.

Exhibitors will show you products that will change the way you travel, commute, vacation and do business. Everyday products that will make your life easier.

There are interesting booths, where the small to mid-sized companies make unique products while the major manufacturers close great business deals.

Making an impression is just like real estate — location matters. And the best spots go first, so sign up early, lock in that prime locale and get down to business.

Contact us to get your ideal stand design. We will present you with the top stand designers and builders in Las Vegas. The event brings together brands, retailers, manufacturers, press and more to showcase the latest in travel gear.

The show is a great time for brands to book business with retailers and to generate interest from the press. Experience one of the greatest trade shows in the vending and refreshment services industry.

Not only due to the opening show hosted by Jay Leno, in addition to that, they also bring the highest quality educational program. Check out their creative stand designs, drawing attention to the thousands of trade professionals with their artsy and food-oriented backdrops.

Find the ideal design for you, with our help, you will be able to get the one that fits your needs the most. Carefully presenting prize-winning products from around the globe, their goal is for all their exhibitors to connect with each other.

Providing breakfast meetings, galas, award shows, networking hubs, seminars and plenty more activities and making it easier to connect with the right supplier, manufacturer or executive you need.

Get real access to the real-world ideas you need to help push your business forward. Take us to the car wash!

Representing 7, car wash locations around the world, this show keeps on impressing. Get your stand and we will get you the coolest design to shine at The Car Wash Show.

Be ready to host 10, trade professionals or be a part of the 20 hours of business seminars. There will be keynote presentations, round tables and exclusive events to talk to the leading companies.

Let the city and this show dazzle you and push your company forward. RECon is a universal global convention for the shopping center industry that provides amazing business connections and offers an exclusive educational opportunity.

This show welcomes more than 32, attendees from around the world. Come into contact with specialist and like-minded professionals in the exclusive networking events that are all over the show floor.

Find the service you need, such as investment avenues, realty services and land development technology systems. Book a stand and also get in touch with us.

We will make your stay at RECon easier by helping you create the stand you want. Remember, this trade show is supported by the most prestigious business-makers in the industry.

Get informed and influenced by the best! The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons gives out excellent pieces of advice to prevent falls at home, how to prepare for a surgery and many more other orthopedic treatments.

Helping the nation be safe and healthy, starting from the bone, this show brings over 14, national and international surgeons.

Hosted in Las Vegas, the best surgeons discuss important topics in the sector, analyze and solve problems as they are able to push the industry forward in the best way possible,after all, that is their main goal.

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We want the best for you at the AAOS! By now, it is a well known fact that MINExpo International is the cutting-edge trades show for every sector in the mining industry.

Exclusively dedicated to launch products, show off their coolest designs and inform us on the technological advances and market development currently in the field.

Join us by showing you the most ideal way to showcase all your products. As this event only happens every four year, it is worth the way.

They also have in-depth business meetings where everyone in the sector is invited. Let us help you show your best face at MINExpo, it is a star event to the calendar and you must take advantages of its benefits.

IBS Las Vegas is a leading trade show for the ever-growing beauty industry. With countless novelties happening all throughout the year, this is the right place for you to find everything you need in the sector.

The stands are buzzing with product launches, state-of-the-art techniques and captivating backdrop designs. Each stand is the face of business it represents, so they make sure that it is well-organized and detailed-oriented for the public.

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There are many advantages of having your brand in this event, starting with wanting to learn new skills to welcoming 20, beauty professionals that want to know more about the industry.

These career-driven salon owners are looking to find the most glamorous and distinctive products there are in the industry.

Not only that, also teaming up with designers, providers and other companies to expand future business projects. With our help, we will direct you to the leading stand designers and builders in Las Vegas.

Gain experience, try the new merchandise, stock up on supplies and let your brand be known by the best in the beauty industry. FN Platform is the international platform where footwear leaders and innovators emerge together to extend the industry of shoes.

Stands are uniquely designed to keep up with the times and to expose the best out of each brand. Talk to us today and be part of this amazing show.

Be sure to check this event out. You will be able to find everything you need in the sector. Whether it is you are a newbie or an old pro in the tool department, The National Hardware Show is the leading trade fair for you.

Held in Las Vegas, you are able to find home improvement tools, DYI kits, industrial tools and everything else in between.

Stands are built with enough space to display all their top products, provide the opportunity for hands-on activities and make special deals on the spot.

All lined up with precision to take advantage of every centimeter around them, it is an impressive sight to see. Fully organized into categories, each booth is clearly well taken care of.

This outstanding show has nine different topics all-together. The inspiring upcoming entrepreneurs and inventors all take part of this show, allowing the public and the big companies to interact and benefit from the newest products and ideas in the making.

Meet up with more than fellow colleagues on the show-floor. Contact us for further information on stand designers and builders in Las Vegas.

As its fairgrounds gets filled with quality choices and all rankings of price tags, it continues to expand its roots by bringing together tens of thousands of attendees from every side of the market.

Latest designs, outstanding layouts and cool storage places for all the latest products is what you can see here.

Held in Las Vegas twice annually, it is the best trade show of its kind. Book stores, toys stores, fashion boutiques, department store and much more.

Plus, it comes with unique merchandise that will set your business apart. Talk to us and we will help you find the right stand designer for you.

At Power-gen International in Las Vegas, you can find all that you need in the power generation world. From the most innovative technologies to further business deals, it covers every aspect of the industry.

You can have ongoing networking sessions and check out seminars that will help push your business forward. As 22, trade visitors from all over the world fill up this fairground, you can bet that there is no better venue to benefit from.

Check this five day event that has over 70 conference sessions, various panel discussions and much more.

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You can find the best stand designs, technical trends, business approaches and continue with the networking buzz of the industry.

It is the show to go to because it covers it all: There is no better pace where you can benefit from a five day show that is filled with 70 conference sessions, panel discussions and various networking events.

Join in to be well informed of every area of the market. Book your stand today and make your brand be seen by hundreds of professionals.

Contact us to discover the best stand builders and designers in Las Vegas. Being held once a year, it is the essential trade show to meet plenty of manufactures and suppliers.

Over 2, exhibitors that showcase their best work, you can network with business promoters, vendors and clients. This event has made possible for start-up companies reach a high success rate around the world.

As both business-owners and its clients grow every year, be sure to check out its fairground and participate.

As you reserve your stand, contact us today. Talk to us about your design ideas. With the help of our specialists, you will receive five proposals from the best stand builders and designers in the area.

IWCE is an annual event for the communication and technology sector. As it presents exhibitors and more than 7, professional trade visitors, it is a great occasion to reinforce your brand while networking with the biggest companies.

At this event, a diverse group of industry professionals participate from all around the world. Book your stand space at their official website and contact us.

By doing so, our specialists will assist you in finding the top stand designers and builders in Las Vegas.

We are sure that you will be pleased with our results. As one of the most popular trade shows of the communications industry, the National Association of Broadcasters hosts approximately 1, different exhibitors each year.

With over , square feet of exhibition space, the show has plenty of room for you to book your ideal stand.

Additionally, with an abundance of various activities and events occurring at the same time as the show, NAB becomes more and more attractive to visitors and attendees from all over the world.

Do not hesitate to book your stand at this annual event, and look to nEventum for more information on booking the best stand for you and your company.

Magic is the trendiest fashion show that is celebrated twice a year in Las Vegas. It presents to us fashion for all ages and sizes. Including apparel, footwear and accessories.

This event has everything we need for the fashion industry, like finding out about the latest styles, talking to the biggest designers and discovering start up companies that bring their own touch to the industry.

Talk to us today to help you find the best stand for this spectacular event. Your brand will be seen across the world as the whole event is broad-casted through their website.

We will help you find the best companies in Las Vegas to create your ideal stand. Discover the trend-setting technologies in CES Las Vegas, where the sophisticated high class companies meet start-up entrepreneurs and together form a great mix of new ideas and future projects.

There are 3, exhibitors,. As the leading company, CEA hosts the show, they present to us countless benefits to join. Plan your stay in this event, contact us for more information on stand builders, contractors and designers.

Pack Expo Las Vegas unites over 1, suppliers, 30, interested buyers, 5, international companies from countries and more than 27, visitors worldwide.

It is an event that is all about the latest in packaging and manufacturing. The biggest brands participate and make the experience a positive one, bringing you innovations, energy, getting in touch with clients and competitors while coming up with new plans for the future.

Aquatec USA, under the Water quality Association WQA held an annual convention and exhibition that connects technologies, know-how, education, training, networking and business opportunities to multiple water industries.

WQA Aquatech USA includes educational sessions and networking with industry professionals in addition of the opportunity of checking the latest products on the trade show floor, everything to help your business.

Whether if you are a manufacturer, a supplier or you are simply involved with a product or service related to the treatment, commercial or residential water industry, you must be an exhibitor.

The City that Never Sleeps is true for business as well as entertainment. Far beneath the bright lights and the swirling euphoria of the casino business is a tradeshow industry that is going strong.

As a matter of fact, the entertainment industry and the tradeshow industry go hand-in-hand, as many Fortune businesses choose to cement deals in Las Vegas for whatever reason.

If you are in competition in Las Vegas , then you need the best Las Vegas exhibition stand that you can have.

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Call us today if you are looking to make the best impression possible at your Las Vegas tradeshow. There is little time to waste: Your competition is getting ahead of you each second that you delay.

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As fun as Las Vegas can be, it is actually quite serious when it comes to its tradeshow industry. Some of the biggest tradeshows in the world come to Las Vegas because they know that it is the best place to close a deal.

Some of the biggest businesses in the world come to Las Vegas because they know that a good showing here can solidify the placement of a product in a global way.

We have detailed some of the most important trade shows coming up in Las Vegas in the coming year. Visitors can see here an extensive selection of jewelry.

Las Vegas may be the first place that gamblers think of when they want to have a good time, but it is also home to some of the finest businessmen in the world.

A Las Vegas tradeshow can mean instant worldwide notoriety for company. No matter your industry, you will likely have to come to Las Vegas at some point in your business career.

It is very important that you make an outstanding showing at a Las Vegas tradeshow. You will need a sturdy backdrop to present yourself well because of the high foot traffic in the area.

Consumers often mixed with business contacts in a Las Vegas tradeshow, and you never know where the consumers have been.

You need to have an exhibition stand that is prepared for anything. Of the thousands of booth stand companies that are in Las Vegas, we know the best of the best.

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What type of Stand do you need, and where? What type of services do you need? Stand design Stand Construction Stand Assembly. Lola Sanz Skype trabajo: Your stand at THE Aesthetic Show The Aesthetic Show is a multidisciplinary medical education meeting focused on the expanding field of aesthetic medicine.

It attracts physicians, nurses, practice managers and office staff from every medical disciplines, including: Because the Las Vegas Aesthetic Show enables you to: Generate sales and obtain qualified leads Interact with an elite audience of medical professionals, prospective buyers and potential partner Educate attendees on products and services Make connections with aesthetic professionals in a relaxed networking environment Expand your brand and increase awareness And plenty more!

Need a stand for this exhibition? As an exhibitor, this is a great opportunity for you to Exhibiting Exhibit here and showcase your products to tens of thousands of buyers.

Why should you exhibit? It is, therefore, a great opportunity for you to: Reach thousands of highly-qualified customers under one roof; Generate leads that can drive product sales year-round; Introduce new products and attract media attention; Keep up on industry trends; Position your brand and increase awareness, And plenty more!

Why exhibit at LDI? This trade show will give you the opportunity to: Who will you meet? LDI hosts attendees working in theatre, concerts, clubs, theme parks, and houses of worship and a wide range of international live and broadcast venues, including: We collaborate with many Stand Contractors in Las Vegas and we can easily find the one that best fits your needs!

Categories Waste Expo covers the following sectors: Categories Project Las Vegas covers the following categories: All the facets of the industry under one roof The schedule of the Show is broad enough to satisfy all the needs, diverse, educational and fun in equal parts.

So during you stay at CinemaCon you will find the latest advances and innovations of the whole chain of the international motion picture theater industry: Benefits ISRI is the perfect place for you to: Interact face to face with thousands of decision-makers; Introduce new products and services to an expert audience; Gain greater visibility for your company; Benefit from an intense media coverage; Generate sales leads and build relationships with prospects; Keep up on industry trends; And more!

Attendee Profile Data Center World addresses the needs of seasoned data center and IT infrastructure management professionals. Interact with thousands of decision-makers from all around the world; Introduce new products and services to an expert audience; Reach thousands of highly-qualified customers; Generate leads that can drive product sales year-round; Identify the latest trends and innovations; Raise your profile and build brand recognition; And more Explore the latest machines, equipments and solutions; Meet influential companies and forge partnerships; Find new costumers and generate sales; Network with key-experts and influential leaders; Promote your new products and get direct feedback; Position your brand and increase awareness; And plenty more!

Categories ConExpo covers the following categories and more! According to official statistics: The International Car Rental Show is the ideal platform for every: IFPE enables you to: Solar Power International enables is the ideal platform for you to: Who will be there?

As an exhibitor you will But two things have made me more optimistic. First, we can afford it. The high costs for the U. Recent reviews by Barker and Ekins of the costs needed to bring about required reductions in greenhouse gases suggests that if policies are expected, gradual, and well designed, they should cost no more than percent of world GDP.

The amount, several trillion dollars, sounds like a lot, but actually represents no more than months of world economic growth. This is equivalent to the recent bank bailouts, and the sooner such policies are planned and coordinated, the lower the bill.

Second, there are reasons to be optimistic about the development of renewable energy technology. The technology we need is either available or not too far from development.

Solutions are needed to develop renewable energy sources. Protecting ideas through intellectual property rights is a key issue if eco-technology is to succeed.

The studies cover a broad spectrum of parameters and assumptions that influence these results, such as population, GDP development of individual countries or regions, global emission pathways that lead to climate stabilization including overshooting the desired concentration level , parameters for the thresholds for participation and ways to share emission allowances.

Mitigation of Climate Change. This combines a contract which fixes an upper limit for global CO2 emissions contraction with a gradual introduction of a distribution of emission rights according to egalitarian principles convergence.

Basis for the fixing of a global upper limit is consensus within society about level of the ecological risk that can be justified.

However, ecological risks can neither be calculated from a natural threshold nor predicted with any certainty.

This is however only the starting point for what then becomes a process with fixed and binding stages, aimed at gradually drawing closer to an egalitarian pro capita distribution of emission rights.

The grandfathering principle eases the transition for countries with a high level of emissions. It can be justified ethically as property protection and pragmatism.

The post-Kyoto negotiations have not yet reached a decision between the two types of model described here as contraction and convergence and responsibility and capacity.

Climate Justice - An ethical analysis of the conflicts, rights and incentives surrounding CO2 by Prof. The over-consuming countries require an adjustment period to contract their CO2 emissions, while developing countries are able to increase to some extent until convergence occurs.

After Convergence each country would receive the same allocation of CO2 emissions permits per head of its population at some agreed base level for the year.

Those countries, unable to live within their allocation would be able to buy more permits from countries, which ran their economies in a more energy-frugal way.

The theory is that this would allow a steady flow of purchasing power from countries that have used fossil fuels energy to become rich to those still struggling to break out of poverty.

The over-consuming industrialised nations, which have cause the warming problem invariably argue that the market should be left to correct the imbalance.

Greenhouse gas emissions are an externality, affecting the lives of others, with people not paying for the consequences.

It is therefore not enough to say leave it to the market, the market has already shown it has failed".

Its objective is to halt the rising concentration of Greenhouse Gas [GHG] in the atmosphere at a level that is low enough not to trigger dangerous rates of climate change.

By the Convention had been ratified by a sufficient number of Governments to bring it into force and a process of International negotiations began to control and reduce the GHG emissions from the human economy that were responsible for this rise of concentrations in the global atmosphere.

To achieve that, global GHG emissions need to fall to near zero within about the next forty years. To accelerate to this greener future with abundant jobs in emissions-free renewable energy, clean transport and infrastructure, sustainable agriculture and oceans, a global climate deal on GHG emissions control is an essential pre-condition and now urgently needed.

With this framework accepted as the basis of the process from now on, guesswork is superseded and the likelihood that planet will remain within the carbon budget is considerably increased.

Contraction and Convergence [ A few more campaign-type statements here ]. The concept of Cap, Contraction and Convergence as a replacement to the Kyoto agreement, has been recently gaining ground.

The idea here is that the limits to carbon emissions need to be capped at parts per million, currently considered to produce a raise in world temperatures above pre-industrial levels of between 1 to 2 degrees Celsius.

It is currently believed that further increases would bring about major positive feedbacks the burning of forests and the loss of carbon from soils and oceans which currently limit greenhouse gas emissions, and would lead to a run-away global warming similar to the Eocene period, during which there was no ice at the poles.

To sustain this figure, it is proposed that on equity grounds, all people should be allocated an equal carbon footprint currently about 2 tonnes per person, which by could fall to 1.

World per capita carbon emissions, currently in excess of 4 tonnes per person needs to contract to those levels, if these targets are to be met.

As a result, in the name of global and inter-generational equity, policies needing to be instituted need to converge, over a fixed period towards this figure for every country.

A trading regime, whereby which countries in excess of these figures from example the USA at 20 tonnes per capita, purchase carbon credits from a country using less than its allocation e.

For example the Contract and Converge strategy has now been adopted by India, China and many African countries as the basis for future negotiations.

Environmental policy instruments are tools used by governments to implement their environmental policies. Governments may use a number of different types of instruments.

For example, economic incentives and market-based instruments such as taxes and tax exemptions, tradable permits, and fees can be very effective to encourage compliance with environmental policy.

Voluntary measures, such as bilateral agreements negotiated between the government and private firms and commitments made by firms independent of government pressure, are other instruments used in environmental policy.

Another instrument is the implementation of greener public purchasing programs. Often, several instruments are combined in an instrument mix formulated to address a certain environmental problem.

Since environmental issues often have many different aspects, several policy instruments may be needed to adequately address each one. Furthermore, instrument mixes may allow firms greater flexibility in finding ways to comply with government policy while reducing the uncertainty in the cost of doing so.

However, instrument mixes must be carefully formulated so that the individual measures within them do not undermine each other or create a rigid and cost-ineffective compliance framework.

Also, overlapping instruments lead to unnecessary administrative costs, making implementation of environmental policies more costly than necessary In order to help governments realize their environmental policy goals, the OECD Environment Directorate studies and collects data on the efficiency of the environmental instruments governments use to achieve their goals as well as their consequences for other policies.

The current reliance on a market based framework is controversial, however, with many prominent environmentalists arguing that a more radical, overarching, approach is needed than a set of specific initiatives, to deal coherently with the scale of the climate change challenge.

For an example of the problems, energy efficiency measures may actually increase energy consumption in the absence of a cap on fossil fuel use, as people might drive more efficient cars further and they might sell better.

Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. Framing the context of the green economy, challenges and opportunities.

Implementing Green economy has to be seen as one of the means for achieving sustainable development, which must remain our overarching goal.

We view the green economy as a means to achieve sustainable development, which must remain our overarching goal. We acknowledge that a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should be within the limits of the carrying capacity of the planet and human capital.

It should increase resource efficiency and sufficiency, phase out the unsustainable consumption and production patterns, and move the world toward low-carbon economies.

From a risk management perspective, the costs of being too lax about emissions could be very high, due to a breakdown in the climate system. It therefore makes sense to aim for tough limits, which can be relaxed later if appropriate.

There is ample guidance from scientific sources on this. Many scientists believe that an atmospheric level of ppmv parts per million by volume of carbon dioxide should be the initial target for prudence.

We are already at This consists in choosing a "safe" global annual emissions level and 2 a date at which it wi ll be shared out globally on a per capita basis.

The other element is 3 a start date from which time the actual, unequal per capita emissions start to move towards their final , equal per capita levels.

Vertical axis is billions of tonnes of carbon emitted annually. Horizontal axis is the year. Operation The solid line BAU shows the path that emissions will follow on historical patterns.

Insurers have a duty as ubiquitous players in the economy and society to help to shape climate policies in a responsible and effective way.

With their expertise in risk management, and their responsibilities as custodians of future wealth they are uniquely placed, but in general they have been dilatory in this task.

It is time for them to speak out strongly for specific measures: Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance. This basic principle has been promoted by India and found support in recent times in Europe, and variations of the approach have figured in recent reports on the way forward for global climate negotiations Stern, ; Commission on Growth and Development, Allocations would decrease continually for countries above the per capita global average.

The market can help rather than hinder sustainable designs and materials, however currently, sustainable buildings or retrofits are hindered by market barriers.

A price on carbon reflecting the true consequences of its use and complementary government policies and incentives, will facilitate the competitiveness of sustainable design, and thus enable energy efficiencies and other environmental benefits to be achieved.

However, we recognise that the mechanism through which each country achieves their target must be flexible. The campaign aims to creatively promote fair carbon budgets to a wide cross-section of society and show who supports this principle.

To be truly sustainable, economic progress must likewise support a low carbon economy that also enhances social welfare. The Fair Shares, Fair Choice campaign promotes positive, socially just and environmentally sound, low carbon choices for individuals, businesses and public and voluntary sector organisations.

A mock-up Fair Shares carbon budget card provides individuals with their annual carbon budget for the next ten years. An interactive website offers a sign-up facility for the campaign and free advice from virtual carbon coaches.

Those signing up to the Fair Shares campaign demonstrate wide ranging support that transcends sectors, ages and party politics.

It translates a relatively complex scientific model for tackling climate change contraction and convergence into an idea that everyone can understand, support and act on positively in our own way.

There are lots of initiatives that calculate carbon footprints but Fair Shares, Fair Choice offers a fair and safe carbon budget that everyone can be personally creative with.

Fair Shares, Fair Choice is an awesome idea for a little sustainability charity with more goodwill than funds but once we discovered the idea we felt we simply had to do our very best to promote it.

For further information, visit: In case there are any remaining doubters reading the BMJ, we begin with the science. Public engagement and greater efforts to convince politicians will be needed to keep climate change high on the political agenda when the problems of the global economy are so pressing.

In his introduction to the Spotlight Tony Delamothe finds one ray of sunshine: In their article, Andy Haines and Carlos Dora explain that health professionals are uniquely placed to promote policies that are good for the planet and for people.

Making Poor Nations Share the Cost of Fighting Climate Change A proposal to set international carbon-reduction targets based on the distribution of one billion "high emitters" in both developed and developing countries Scientific American.

Pythagorean Orbital Pattern for Sun: Venus - One truth, many viewpoints of beautiful order in the solar system.

By making this series of learning modules publicly available, the World Bank Institute will assist a greater share of the world parliamentary community in fulfilling their role in the governance process.

Contraction and Convergence While the Kyoto Protocol is the legally binding international regime on climate change, a number of proposals have been put forward as alternatives for future regimes.

Brazil proposed setting differentiated emissions reduction targets for Annex I countries ranked according to the impact of their historic emissions on temperature rise.

In general, countries with a longer record of greenhouse gas emissions will have a greater share of responsibility for emission reductions than countries where industrialization started later.

The proposal was originally designed for application to Annex I countries. However, it could theoretically be applied to developing countries as well.

Contraction and convergence uses two principles: The convergence mechanism assists in distributing emission allowances and eventually, at the end of the convergence period, countries will have allowances in proportion to their populations.

Developed countries would be the first to make large cuts in their emissions levels, whereas developing countries would be permitted to keep increasing their emissions levels for a period before also beginning to cut their emissions.

This framework, intended to form the basis of an international agreement is expressed as a simple mathematical formula, which can be used as a method for stabilizing carbon levels in the atmosphere.

Parliament and Climate Change Unit 8: Responding to Climate Change through International Negotiations.

Although there were only five organizations involved, the negotiations mirrored the international negotiations in many ways. The participants sought an equitable distribution of the burden of climate change response, while arguing for their own special circumstances and the need for differentiation of targets to take these circumstances into account.

It is interesting, though perhaps not surprising, that a contraction and convergence approach emerged as the only equitable way to provide differentiation of targets across the participants.

Garnaut ; Singer believe that such an approach is the only way to achieve a successful equitable outcome in international negotiations on climate change response and the ATN experience supports this conclusion.

However, the key factor that allowed this approach to succeed in the ATN was the commitment of all parties to the ATN partnership and its spirit of collaboration.

A similar spirit is sorely needed in international negotiations on climate change response. Rival architectures can usefully be analysed in terms of their fit with four principles of equity: The key aim is to bring about a stabilisation, and later a contraction, in global greenhouse emissions so that they stay below a safe level, together with the idea that, in the longer term, all countries will converge on a roughly equal level of per capita emissions compatible with the long-term stability of the climate system.

Within this approach, a country that wants to emit more than its yearly quota must buy credits from countries that have spare capacity.

The country selling the credits can then invest the receipts in activities enabling it to develop in a sustainable manner.

The flexibility of this approach means that many developing countries will not be required to reduce their emissions to the same extent as developed countries even though there will be a cap on how much their emissions are permitted to grow.

Unlike a number of competing approaches, Contraction and Convergence, if fully implemented, could be expected to reduce the risks of dangerous climate change substantially.

Although the approach would be more costly to implement than its rivals in the short to medium term, it sits more easily with principles C1 and C2 than its rivals when we focus on the longer term.

It also has the merit that, because it adopts emissions targets based on scientific criteria for protecting the atmosphere it reduces the role of power politics in determining the structure of the regime.

The approach still involves a certain amount of horse trading associated with the selection of the base year as well as with the specific details of mechanisms concerned with emissions trading and the role of sinks but much less than with rival architectures.

For all these reasons, this architecture seems to fit better with principle P2 than its rivals. Finally, Contraction and Convergence also offers an interesting approach to the problem of historical responsibility, which has hitherto dogged attempts to construct a truly global solution to climate change for some developed countries principle P1.

Contraction and Convergence, in being a fundamentally forwardlooking approach to climate change, does not allocate the most costly duties of climate mitigation and adaptation to developed countries because they are responsible for the emergence of climate change.

Rather, it distributes the duties of climate management in line with their ability to undertake the protective measures deemed necessary to safeguard a future where dangerous climate change is avoided.

As a result, Contraction and Convergence may prove more attractive, and therefore motivational, than rival architectures that appeal to the controversial historical duties members of developed countries possess as a result of the behaviour of their ancestors.

The IPCC low concentration scenario results in a CO2 concentration of ppmv CO2 and a total greenhouse gas concentration equivalent to about double pre-industrial levels.

TIlis would produce a long. However, it is difficult to maintain that such a target would be tolerable with respect to the human rights of considerable sections of the world population.

A lower target is required. So far, both Northern and Southern governments - apart from the Island States - have shown little interest in defining low danger emission caps in the climate negotiations.

All parties disregard the fact that when it comes to capping emissions, the choice is between human rights and the need for affluence.

In particular, it still seems to have escaped the attention of Southern countries that dimate protection is of the utmost importance for the dignity and survival of their own people.

It is time they become protagonists of climate protection, because climate protection is not simply aoout crops and coral reefs, but fundamentally aoout human rights.

The point of convergence of North and South on equal emission levels cannot be achieved at the expense of contraction , i.

Once again, sustainability gives rise to equity. This broadcast from William Rees was apparently off-the-cuff. The really inconvenient truth, which we do not wish to discuss, and certainly is not on any political platform to date, are these ones.

Looking at the data on material resource trends, pollution around the Earth, matching this against production and carrying capacity, that workshop concluded that in the industrial world, reductions of up to 90 percent would be required by the middle of this century, in order to enable necessary growth to occur in the Third World, and to keep the whole within the carrying capacity of the planet.

In fact reduce our consumption to create the ecological space necessary for those who deserve to grow, so that they can come up to a decent standard.

And probably another two billion who are deficient in some dietary standard or other. But the fact is, about half the people on Earth are still living the Malthusian dilemma.

Just based on our consumption date, we in North America should be designing an economy that uses 80 percent less in absolute terms in order to create the space for others to gain their fair share.

Contraction and convergence has to be the way, if you are going to have equity on a single planet, and sustainability at the same time.

We should be designing a smaller, equitable steady-state economy, that maintains itself within the carrying capacity.

It is at this level of international policy that there is a clear parallel with the other key issue of our time - poverty and hunger. All this must be coordinated internationally, in line with widely accepted models of contraction and convergence which present the only truly equitable solution to the climate change conundrum.

The prospect of saving the environment is not without great hope and optimism, however, as evidenced in the emergent formation of a global mass movement that must decisively influence the necessary change in direction.

An international commitment to equally sharing our right to the atmosphere, and our right to pollute it, alongside strict targets for emissions reductions, will go a long way to ensuring the viability of life on earth for future generations.

The contraction and convergence mechanism works in line with the principle of sharing and provides the necessary framework for CO2 sustainability.

The journal provides a nice collection of articles with the latest news, state of the art research and viewpoints on the enormous political challenge.

Suffice it to say: This is anything but a generation issue full disclosure: I turn forty in October. Last time I checked, greed was still in all of us, young and old.

Adjusting incentive structures of decision makers and CEOs seems inevitable and part of the solution. Time to stop instrumentalizing health for economic growth The Carbon Budget Challenge.

A Contraction and Convergence model, which reduces overall emissions and brings them to an equal level per capita, was put together during the afternoon.

Building upon this model, developers designed a visualisation tool where one could input different implementation years, GDP and population growth rates in order to estimate the contraction and convergence path.

However, soon after the Earth Summit in Rio, economic globalisation was imposed on the world through the establishment of the World Trade Organization.

On the other hand, it has encouraged outsourcing of energy- and resource-intensive production, which translates into an outsourcing of pollution.

The unit of accountability in emission reductions should be corporations, wherever they produce, not the countries where they relocate to maximise profits.

But there is an even more important equity issue in the context of climate change and peak oil. This equity is based on the rights of people, especially the rights of the poor.

Relying on past cases of appropriorion or allocation of other unclaimed resources from the "globa[ commons" of Antarctica, the oceans and the moon, Raymond finds link precedent ror any of the five standard allocation arguments.

Instead the recurring Humean claim to exclusive national property rights based in possession like those implicit in GHG emission rights is often opposed by "a more radical egalitarian re jection of any exclusive control that does not benefit all citizens of the world.

Several proposals suggest that the most equitable approach would be to allocate global emissions reductions by population for example Contraction and Convergence.

Dr Mayer Hillman to Tom Burke. This is hardly a move towards helping them to agree a numerate and transparent framework. This is not clarification leading to any progress.

It is more avoidance leading to more chaos. I think that within a short space of time, it will become admitted, even by Friedman-onomists and other assorted Freak-onomists that marginal pricing strategies on high carbon energy are not producing a major shift to a low carbon energy economy.

Nobody wants to buy carbon permits, so they will all duck the quotas, and buck the system. Which is fine for anybody trading in energy industry stock, but not for the rest of us, and is especially limiting for any attempts to price greenhouse gas emissions.

That would be OK if we only expect carbon markets to provide some equilibrium in disparate progress towards carbon emissions reduction.

If carbon markets were recognised as only being able to enable a small tranche of the overall changes required. Contraction and Convergence, as formulated by the Global Commons Institute under the leadership of Aubrey Meyer is the recipe that everyone can adopt as a framework without compromising their national, corporate and personal ambitions, and the hook on which every government can pin their renewable energy and energy management promotion strategies upon.

In this case, we should not be defeated by climate change damages, but overcome evil with good. The measures that the authors advocate include:.

While proposals from the policy-making community often frame adequacy in terms of parts per million GHG concentrations, the UNFCCC debate is not framed with this metric; instead a temperature goal has been adopted.

Where did they come from; were the models on which it is based valid? Green Festival Peak District May Saturday, 5 May, to Monday, 7 May, Time: Cromford Mills Booking Arrangement: This Bank Holiday sees the return of the Peak Climate Festival with a wide range of exciting events to raise awareness of climate change.

The threat of climate change will be explored through workshops, talks, stalls, live bands and film - all in the cradle of the Industrial Revolution.

There will also be a selection of stalls where visitors can discover more about how they can help in their own fight against climate change. If you would like to book a place on any of the following talks then please contact Visitor Services either by email visitorservices arkwrightsociety.

Talks programme Saturday, 5th May. Following a stint as a lecturer on Antarctic cruise ships, she became an environmental consultant, specializing in environmental impact assessments for polar projects.

She currently works for the International Polar Foundation UK, communicating on polar science, the environment and climate change.

In , he was one of the authors of the IPCC report on climate change and extreme events. His books include A Guide to the End of the World: His latest book is Waking the Giant: Aubrey Meyer Global Commons Institute is a composer, string musician and award-winning environmental campaigner.

In he founded the Global Commons Institute and later developed the Contraction and Convergence approach to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions; widely acknowledged as the only fair and equitable means by which this may be accomplished.

In recognition of his work,, Aubrey was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in , by a cross-party group of MPs.

The GCCA is a global alliance of over organisations covering environment, aid and development, faith groups and the unions that have come together with the aim of taking action to protect the climate.

Paul was a marine biologist before he started campaigning on peace and environmental issues in the mids. Subsequently he worked for the Marine Conservation Society and then joined Greenpeace where he was an international campaigner mostly working on the oil industry, climate change and energy issues in different parts of the world.

He lives in Kent on board a traditional Dutch sailing barge or Tjalk. David Strahan Independent energy consultant is an award-winning investigative journalist and documentary film-maker who specializes in business and energy.

He is also the author of The Last Oil Shock: It is about working conceptual and geographical boundaries. It is a democratic process where the experts are those with lived experience.

We can distinguish between the old silo-based approach and the new systemic approach and argue that we need a shift in our thinking and practice to more open to new ideas.

We must hang together lest we hang separately. The total framework within which a UK carbon-rationing regime must be established if the goal really is climate victory is pretty simple in outline for all that.

It depends in fact on one of those solutions which is so simple that no-one could see it until it was formulated by a non-expert thinking outside the box.

It is probably best explained in the words of Aubrey Meyer, the man behind it: Global greenhouse emissions need to be reduced by 60 percent in less than a hundred years.

When governments agree to be bound by such a target, the diminishing amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that the world could release while staying within the target can be calculated for each year of the coming Century.

This is the contraction part of the process. Countries unable to manage within their allocation would, within limits, be able to buy the unused parts of the more frugal countries.

This means, startlingly, just what it says. Over time, we converge on an equal share for every human being of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which it is judged safe for humanity as a whole to go on emitting.

The global percentage reduction target and the date for reaching it are decided on the basis of our best scientifically informed estimate of what will give us the best chance of keeping now-inevitable global warming within survivable limits.

We then work towards meeting that target on the understanding that well before we do so, every country will be operating within an equitable national emissions allocation.

This allocation will be equitable because it will depend only on national population, multiplied by the personal carbon budget on which we shall have converged for each global citizen.

As within the suggested UK rationing scheme, trading around these national allocations is permissible, but the overall global emissions quota is firmly capped.

Genuinely equal shares worldwide in a key resource equality not just in theory high-sounding declarations of universal human rights and so forth , but in hard practice, to which the hitherto globally rich and dominant must conform themselves - and to a fixed timescale!

But this response will not survive much careful reflection. For what, actually is the alternative? We have to turn the global-warming super-tanker around, if not quite on a sixpence then certainly within a very limited stretch of sea - and its currently lumbering momentum is powered increasingly by the burgeoning carbon emissions of hugely populous and ambitiously industrializing developing countries.

Whatever may have been the pros and cons. That is now the hard unvarnished truth for global humanity. It would require impossibly high standards to regard all these bodies as lacking in seriousness.

This a very demanding kind of engagement when compared with our current stance, but it is no less than a survival imperative.

The question for this book and this chapter, however is how all this relates to a deep-sustainability understanding of what we are about.

This module is available through Distance Learning. The module explores and analyses critical concepts and terms central to debates over climate change, including risk and uncertainty, adaptation and mitigation, burden sharing, and problems and issues relating to regimes, strategies and policy instruments for addressing global warming.

It evaluates the effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation strategies as well as the flexibility mechanisms. It evaluates risks and uncertainties in the climate change arena and considers alternative approaches such as Contraction and Convergence The method of assessment is by assignment with 4 separate assignments for the module.

Teaching is through an E-Learning portal that enables access to electronic resources and e-mail contact with academic staff. Richard Black March Anyway his piece correctly laid out the case.

The figure that was being bandied about at COP is two tonnes of CO2 or its equivalent per person per year.

In turn, this may be enough to constrain the global average temperature rise to within C at most, which according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC would avoid many of the most damaging projected impacts.

Currently, the average Briton produces about 10 tonnes per year - the average US citizen more, the average Chinese or Indian considerably less.

So a great deal of convergence is implied, and I should be remiss if I did not point up here the important role of Aubrey Meyer and the Global Commons Institute in developing the concept of Contraction and Convergence.

Two tonnes by might be a starting point for discussions; but precisely how much, and by what means, are clearly questions where important nuances pertain.

Where there are grey areas, there is also much room for political wrangling; and of course any agreement on contraction and convergence towards some figure like two tonnes, with whatever caveats, in the end has to be negotiated between governments.

How much is enough? He oversaw the introduction into law of the UK Climate-Act in This prescribed a global convergence-rate to equal per capita shares globally that completed by This was inside a global emissions contraction rate that peaked in and declined to zero emissions by the end of the Century.

He went on, "I do not think that will form the basis of an agreement. I think that there is a sort of attractive justice element to the contraction and convergence idea.

He was also apparently unaware that the Chinese Government had proposed immediate convergence of emissions entitlements in July But Mr Miliband then went further than that.

Can We Afford the Future?: Deciphering Climate Economics Frank Ackerman. This analysis needs to address the tension between markets and planning and the tension between entitlements and investment.

So far, we have not begun to do that. We need to shift the axis of politics from a battle between the left and the right to a battle between those who care about the future and those who want to stay in the past.

The split is still between the North and the South. He says his views are too well known to be sourced. This Islamic Design work and its animation is exquisitely beautiful.

It is by Zarah Hussein and can be retrieved at this link. In , Chinese emissions per capita were about 6 tons, compared to the United States at 25 tons, and Russia at 15 tons.

People who consume a greater than average share of resources, they say, should reduce them to allow for expansion by those who now consume less than average.

Aid Watch New Zealand. To take into account historical inequities in carbon usage, the model holds that industrialised countries should drastically contract their carbon output to an emissions level less than what their respective per capita share would be, to allow the space for majority world countries to continue emitting at a greater rate until their basic development needs are met.

But PM Singh made the commitment in the context of a long-term convergence of per capita emissions. In short, the more the OECD countries brought down their emissions, the less India would allow its emissions to rise" [see below].

In this context, they endorsed the convergence of per capita emissions of developing and developed countries on an equitable basis for tackling climate change.

More recently some ACE Member Organisations have adopted important policy initiatives with regard to sustainability and architectural practice.

The concept of Contraction and Convergence is an internationally supported philosophy for countering climate change and requires a global agreement on the levels of annual global emissions required to remain within safe levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

By adopting Contraction and Convergence as one element of a four-part policy proposal the RIBA aims to achieve greater public awareness of the threat that climate change poses and it is using the policy to lobby influential organisations and government.

The DVD sets out the policy of the CNOA and provides documentaries on several examples of good practice that will permit its members to learn in detail about the benefits of adopting a sustainability-oriented approach to their work.

Several recent important developments at the European Union level offer a favourable context for the launch of specific actions in the EU and in individual Member States.

Declaration and Policy of the Architects of Europe. Kristin Vala Ragnarsd6ttir1 and Harald U. The features of this flexible framework are: Increases in national budgets in response to rising populations would not be permitted after an agreed set date.

This solution may be a more welcomed approach than the Kyoto Protocol which is seen by various countries as unworkable and unfair because:. Conceived by the Global Commons Institute [GCI] in the early s, the Contraction and Convergence strategy consists of reducing overall emissions of greenhouse gases to a safe level contraction , resulting from every country bringing its emissions per capita to a level which is equal for all countries.

It is intended to form the basis of an international agreement which will reduce carbon dioxide emissions to avoid dangerous climate change, carbon dioxide being the gas that is primarily responsible for changes in the greenhouse effect on Earth.

It is expressed as a simple mathematical formula. This formula can be used as a way for the world to stabilize carbon levels at any level.

It will nonetheless be difficult, if not impossible, to hold temperature increases below this level given current trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions.

The global total of permitted emissions is calculated so as to achieve the objective of limiting and stabilising atmospheric carbon concentrations below the level beyond which runaway climate change becomes unavoidable presently thought to be about parts per million.

This calculated amount of carbon the global carbon budget provides the quantum from which an inclusive, global, equal rights per capita entitlement of carbon is derived; an entitlement that will go to each adult.

Emissions trading can then take place within the context of this scientifically calculated carbon budget and the rights based mechanism for distribution.

The implementation of a framework founded on these principles will require tough negotiation, particularly around the speed of convergence to an equal per capita entitlement of carbon dioxide emissions, which can be no more than one and a half tonnes per person by assuming a global population of 9 billion.

Calculation of the initial carbon budget takes account of the present capacity of the global sinks: The equal per capita entitlement of carbon emissions can be pre-distributed as carbon coupons to consumers who could then negotiate the sale of these coupons.

Under-consumers generally the poor will have coupons to sell to over-consumers generally the rich. Market forces will work for the poor as well as to reduce carbon emissions; a key feature of the scheme.

Putting the poor in control is a crucial development goal, as evidenced by the recent moves by donor agencies such as the International Red Cross to simply give cash to the poor.

Recent publications testify to the efficacy of this approach. This commitment can be written into the global agreements.

So also can the proportion of the entitlements that would be held by the country level group to cover communal facilities such as schools and hospitals.

No other framework quantifies allowable carbon emissions against an atmospheric CO2 concentration. No other framework allocates entitlements of this amount in a way which is to the advantage of underprivileged people in both the countries that are yet to industrialise and the rapidly industrialising countries.

Time is of the essence. This is well understood by health professionals. Our traumatised globe is nearing the end of its golden hour.

For the sake of present and future generations, we have to move quickly for our interventions to successfully heal the globe.

Beyond issues relating to personal tradable emissions are discussed - with a view to moving towards a more stringent contraction and convergence global environmental future.

Difficulties relating to the costs and administration and likely equity impacts of such a carbon trading scheme, and whether individuals require or are entitled to the same number of credits all need to be resolved in the early years to It is possible that rationing schemes prove unworkable at the individual level and are easier to apply at the industrial level via the fuel supplier or motor anufacturing company.

The latter involves less actors; though a wide public debate and understanding is still required. Halcrow - Images of the Future. Its down to us.

Its the fossil fuels stupid "Curiously, Sachs makes no mention of contraction and convergence and personal carbon rationing, the solutions endorsed in The Age of Stupid.

Contraction and convergence is a policy framework for mitigating climate change that has been endorsed by governments, non-governmental organisations, environmentalists, and scientists all around the world, including by African nations, the very people that Sachs wants to release from poverty.

Climate change is too serious to leave to economists. We are all responsible for all. Contraction and convergence is being kept secret because those in power fear having to do what we elected them to do: Burning fossil fuels irrespective of the planetary consequences makes big money for big business.

The media are gagged by financial dependence on advertisements of cars, air travel, and distant holidays. It is down to us.

The perfect diet may not have been invented, but there is sufficient research to show that a plant-based diet high in fruits and vegetables, with minimal red meats is best.

Wealthier, health-conscious western consumers are already adopting such diets, but rapidly developing nations are undergoing the same damaging nutrition transition that the west underwent in the twentieth century, and meat consumption is rapidly increasing.

Public health researchers are now promoting contraction and convergence policies, where those on western diets cut back their consumption of meat and dairy, whilst allowing people in the poorer developing areas, e.

Compassion in World Farming. Allocation would be based on an interpolation between the current situation and the future equal per capita emission allowances.

Human-caused increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, chiefly carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion, are the likely cause of contemporary climate change.

The changes in the last 50 years are unprecedented even in geological history. The challenge of scale that it will take to reduce the carbon going into the ecosystem is daunting.

Energy efficiencies are an approach that can be tackled immediately: Cicerone lays out approaches to geo-engineering that are possibilities that affect the factors of population, energy consumption and technology.

A global per-capita emissions cap agreement contraction and convergence model seems to be the most necessary step in reversing the carbon impact that is projected in the future, particularly from developing countries.

Research and examination of a science-based response to our impending self-inflicted catastrophe is critical. However, putting carbon genie back in the bottle is essentially a zero-sum game, once its released it takes eons to absorb it back into the global structure.

And time is of the essence; a 3 to 5 degree temperature rise in this century is inevitable, bringing us to the cusp of catastrophic climate change in the relatively near future.

Challenges Beyond , summarizes the current approaches and challenges for conservation. Here is an excerpt describing their outlook for the future:.

We are far from including biodiversity in our conventional measures of well-being, which focus on wealth creation and internationally recognized estimates of GDP.

Although there have been attempts to redefine these including, for instance, the Human Development Index and green national accounts , the mainstream view of well-being and of national development remains focused on narrowly defined economic growth.

Furthermore, the current recession only strengthens the emphasis on growth. The transition to sustainability will not be easy, but it is central to securing a future for biodiversity.

Conservation strategies, in concert with other environmental policies, must address seemingly intractable and politically unpalatable issues. In both developed and emerging economies, we need to reduce the carbon and material throughput demanded by current patterns of production and consumption if we are to create viable and democratically acceptable trajectories of contraction and convergence in resource use.

In parallel, we must recognize that successful human development agendas are underpinned by functional ecosystems, and by biodiversity.

As another friend said recently: We are especially grateful to Philippe Sibaud who authored this report. He spent over a year unearthing the information and painstakingly analysing and reflecting on its implications, to build the foundations of this report.

Philippe has been involved in the oil industry for 18 years, first as an operator and then as a trader of crude oil on the international markets.

He left the industry in to concentrate on environmental and social projects. We very much appreciate your perseverance and generosity, Philippe, and so do our partners and allies.

Thanks to our Associates and Partners who alerted us to the urgent need to analyse the global trends in the extractive industry, to get an overall perspective of what is going on.

After 25 years of working with partners across the world, suddenly things changed. We thank the communities at the frontline of this intensifying wave for sharing your stories of courage and tragedy in the battle for sanity.

Many others have provided willing advice and support in various ways: For their creativity, time and energy, our thanks to: And finally, special thanks also to those who endorsed the Report: If we are to mitigate the effects of climate change, we need a rapid reduction in our prodution of greenhouse gases.

Through the IPCC, attempts are being made to do this e,g. Copenhagcn and Kyoto Unfortunately, such reductions only include the developed world and the targets set have been small compared to what the climate science indicates is needed.

This approach starts by setting a maximum safe atmospheric concentration for carbon dioxide, then estimates what level of global emissions gives rise to this, then apportions this to each country based on its population.

Countries that currently produce more than this largely the developed world can buy the right to emit more from those that emit less than their quota largely the developing world.

Over time the total right to emit would be reduced until the safe level of emissions is reached Contraction and Convergence is seen by many as the only ethically sound way of selling reduction targets that have a reasonable chance of gaining support from the world community.

In order to make the required reductions we will have to simultaneously reduce the amount of energy we use to achieve a set goal e.

In the following we look at the plethora of renewable sources we can access. In Chapter 13 we saw how emissions can be reduced through energy efficiency, or the climate directly engineered.

Chapter 13 also presented one of many possible combinations of changes to our energy supply that has the potential to make major carbon savings, together with an example abatement curve.

Hammond, Jessica Lamond, David G. It looks like it. The Bottom Line is that: The US would not even agree to the Kyoto Protocol, so the GDR idea while intensifying the blame-game and so perhaps appealing to some Develolping Countries, in reality simply inflames an existing disagreement.

It embodies the economic political reality, that adjustment to equal per capita emissions entitlements will take time.

It is a rational, flexible and transparent concept that holds out the best hope of all urgent proposals that might form a basis of an environmentally and economically rational global agreement on climate change mitigation.

The contraction and convergence idea was at the core of the proposals for international agreement that are part of the Garnaut Climate Change Review, commissioned by and presented to the Australian Prime Minister and all State Premiers R.

This report is a collaborative effort between leading climate change economists and the Australian Treasury. Two scenarios were developed jointly with the Garnaut Climate Change Review.

These more stylised scenarios assume united global action, with all countries taking on emission reduction obligations from This represents an optimal post agreement.

National contributions are based on a contraction and convergence approach, whereby the allocation of emission rights among countries converges from current levels to equal per capita rights by Garnaut, a.

The Garnaut scenario is consistent with stabilisation at around ppm by ; the Garnaut scenario concentrations peak above ppm, then decline to around ppm by consistent with stabilisation at ppm soon thereafter.

Assuming potential problems could be overcome, Contraction and Convergence offers a stunningly simple way of applying the same environmental standards to all.

At the same time it would clearly demand more action from some than others. Thousands of miles from Tuvalu, African farmers are reporting consistently shorter rain-fed growing seasons.

In large areas of Africa the production of maize is expected to fall significantly as a result of changing seasons and drought caused by climate change.

Whilst our governments debate what standards we should all be expected to reach, millions of people are already facing the harsh realities of a changing climate.

A global climate agreement is needed urgently, but it will only work if all countries are involved and prepared to do as much as they can, not as little as they can get away with.

Lets hope all countries, the US included, will rise to the challenge and ensure a sustainable, equal future for all.

Insurers can play a part in helping mitigation policies to be more effective. We need a global deal. These countries are understandably frustrated that they are likely to be denied the historic opportunity that we in the rich countries had to grow their economies and lift their people out of poverty without having to take account of the real costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

For developing countries to agree to a global deal in which they take on differentiated convergence targets, the date and rate of convergence of the rich countries would need to consider the historical responsibility of the rich countries for the bulk of the problem and also their far greater capacity to pay for the adjustment costs.

Another factor that is frequently neglected is that such proposals imply continued multi-decade economic growth of the rich countries with per capita emissions far above average.

There is no alternative to this given where we are of course, but this needs to be considered in weighing the contributions the rich countries should make to a global deal.

To summarise, the following factors should be considered in negotiating the date and trajectories of contraction and convergence proposals:.

Ross Garnaut explicitly adopted convergence to equal per capita emissions as a central plank of his recommendations in his Review.

That is, there would be a global cap on annual greenhouse gas emissions which would be set to decline year after year until a safe level is reached.

Consistent with this cap, allocations of permissible emissions would be made to individual countries reflecting their existing emissions and state of economic development.

Over time per capita emissions would converge to a common level. The Limits to Travel David Metz.

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The primary non-ferrous commodities that PSC Metals recycles are aluminum, copper, brass, stainless steel and other nickel-bearing metals. Non-ferrous products are a significant raw material in the production of aluminum and copper alloys used in manufacturing.

The geographic markets for non-ferrous scrap tend to be larger than those for ferrous scrap due to the higher selling prices of non-ferrous metals relative to their weight, which justify the cost of shipping over greater distances.

Non-ferrous scrap is typically sold on a spot basis, either directly or through brokers, to intermediate or end-users, which include smelters, foundries and aluminum sheet and ingot manufacturers.

Prices for non-ferrous scrap are driven by demand for finished non-ferrous metal goods and by the general level of economic activity, with prices generally related to the price of the primary metal on the London Metals Exchange, Chicago Mercantile Exchange or the New York Commodity Exchange.

PSC Metals is focused on growing and diversifying its core ferrous business by improving operating efficiencies through better use of its assets, lowering its cost structure and continuing to expand its non-ferrous business through both acquisitions and organic growth.

PSC Metals seeks to acquire companies that will enable it to increase and maintain a consistent supply of scrap and capture efficiencies associated with an appropriate level of vertical integration.

The scrap metal recycling industry is highly competitive, cyclical in nature, and commodity-based. Operating results tend to reflect and be amplified by changes in general global economic conditions, which in turn drive domestic and overseas manufacturing and the consumption of scrap in the production of steel and foundry products.

Demand is driven by mill production schedules related to regional manufacturing requirements and service center stocking levels.

Due to the lower selling prices of ferrous metals relative to their weight, raw ferrous scrap is generally purchased locally.

Ferrous scrap prices are local and regional in nature. Where there are overlapping regional markets, however, prices do not tend to differ significantly between the regions due to the ability of companies to ship scrap metal from one region to another.

The most significant limitation on the size of the geographic market for the procurement of ferrous scrap is transportation cost.

The steel products business is less cyclical but is affected by the rate of secondary product generated by steel mills generating these products and the market demands in plate and pipe markets.

We conduct our Railcar segment through our majority ownership interests in American Railcar Industries, Inc. ARL is considered an entity under common control that requires us to consolidate the financial results of ARL on an as-if-pooling basis.

ARI is one of the leading North American designers and manufacturers of hopper and tank railcars. ARI provides its railcar customers with integrated solutions through a comprehensive set of high-quality products and related services through its manufacturing, leasing and railcar services operations.

ARL is engaged in the business of leasing railcars to customers with specific requirements whose products require specialized railcars dedicated to transporting, storing, and preserving the integrity of their products.

These products are primarily in the energy, food and agriculture, chemical, minerals and petrochemical industries.

ARI is a reporting company under the Exchange Act and files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC that is publicly available.

In servicing this customer base our Railcar segment believes its comprehensive railcar services offerings and its railcar components manufacturing operations will help our Railcar segment to further penetrate the general railcar manufacturing and leasing market.

ARI designs, manufactures and sells special, customized and general purpose railcars and a wide range of components primarily for the North American railcar and industrial markets.

ARI primarily manufactures two types of railcars, hopper and tank railcars, but has the ability to produce additional railcar types.

In addition, ARI offers these same railcars for lease. ARI also supports the railcar industry by offering a variety of comprehensive railcar repair services, ranging from full to light repair, engineering and on-site repairs and maintenance through its various repair facilities, including mobile units and mini shops.

ARI and ARL offer customers the option to lease their railcars through various leasing options, including full service leases.

Its primary customers for services provided by this group are leasing companies and shippers of specialty hopper and tank railcars.

ARI uses this knowledge to improve its service and product offerings. The railcar manufacturing industry has historically been extremely competitive.

The railcar leasing industry has also been historically extremely competitive. We conduct our Gaming segment through our majority ownership in Tropicana Entertainment Inc.

Tropicana is a reporting company under the Exchange Act and files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC that are publicly available.

Tropicana is an owner and operator of regional casino and entertainment properties located in the United States and one casino resort development located on the island of Aruba.

On April 1, , Tropicana acquired an additional casino resort in Missouri. Tropicana primarily caters to local and regional guests to provide a fun and exciting gaming environment with high-quality and high-value lodging, dining, retail and entertainment amenities.

Tropicana Evansville - Evansville, Indiana;. Tropicana Greenville - Greenville, Mississippi; and. Tropicana Aruba - Palm Beach, Aruba.

Tropicana owns land-based and riverboat casino facilities in six states and one casino resort located on the island of Aruba.

Tropicana competes with numerous casinos and casino hotels of varying quality and size in the markets in which its properties are located and with other forms of legalized gaming, including state-sponsored lotteries, racetracks, off-track wagering, video lottery, video poker terminals and card parlors.

Tropicana also competes with other non-gaming resorts and vacation areas, and with various other entertainment businesses.

The casino entertainment business is characterized by competitors that vary considerably by their size, quality of facilities, number of operations, brand identities, marketing and growth strategies, financial strength and capabilities, level of amenities, management talent and geographic diversity.

In most markets, Tropicana competes directly with other casino facilities operating in the immediate and surrounding market areas, including casinos located on Native American reservations.

In some markets, Tropicana faces competition from nearby markets in addition to direct competition within its market areas. Tropicana believes competition in existing markets has intensified over the last several years, due to new markets opening for development, overall challenging economic conditions and decreased spending on leisure activities.

Many casino operators have invested in expanding existing facilities, developing new facilities, and acquiring established facilities in existing markets.

The expansion of casino entertainment at existing properties, the increase in the number of properties and the aggressive marketing strategies of many of our competitors has increased competition in many markets in which Tropicana competes, and it expects this intense competition to continue.

Tropicana uses a variety of trade names, service marks and trademarks and has all the rights and licenses necessary to conduct its continuing operations.

Tropicana has registered several service marks and trademarks with the United States Patent and Trademark Office or otherwise acquired the licenses to use those which are material to the conduct of its business.

Tropicana owns the following federally registered trademarks or service marks that are material to its business: Operating results are traditionally the strongest in the third quarter and traditionally the weakest during the fourth quarter.

Any excess cash flows achieved from operations during the peak seasons are used to subsidize non-peak seasons.

Performance in non-peak seasons is usually dependent on favorable weather and a long-weekend holiday calendar.

In the event that Tropicana is not able to generate excess cash flows during the peak seasons, it may not be able to fully subsidize non-peak seasons.

Gaming laws generally are based upon declarations of public policy designed to protect gaming consumers and the viability and integrity of the gaming industry.

Gaming laws also may be designed to protect and maximize state and local revenues derived through taxes and licensing fees imposed on the gaming industry participants as well as to enhance economic development and tourism.

To accomplish these public policy goals, gaming laws establish procedures to ensure that participants in the gaming industry meet certain standards of character and fitness.

Gaming laws require Tropicana and certain of its subsidiaries, as well as its directors, officers with respect to corporations , managers with respect to limited liability companies , and certain other key employees and, in some cases, certain of its shareholders with respect to corporations , members with respect to limited liability companies , and holders of debt securities, to obtain licenses, findings of suitability or other approvals from gaming authorities.

Licenses or findings of. Where not mandated by statute, rule or regulation, gaming authorities generally have broad discretion in determining who must come forward for suitability and whether an applicant qualifies for licensing or should be deemed suitable or otherwise qualified.

Tropicana is subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, currency transactions, employees, taxation, zoning and building codes, marketing and advertising, vessels and permanently moored craft.

Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted.

Tropicana periodically experiences challenges in negotiating collective bargaining agreements with certain unions. As discussed below, we obtained control of and consolidated the results of Ferrous Resources during the second quarter of Ferrous Resources acquired certain rights to iron ore mineral resources in Brazil and develops mining operations and related infrastructure to produce and sell iron ore products to the global steel industry.

Prior to the tender offer, IEP Ferrous owned approximately Future revenues will depend on Brazilian and global demand levels for iron ore, iron ore international sales prices, the type of iron ore product it sells and the iron content of those products.

Iron ore prices including sale prices in Brazil are largely driven by global demand for crude steel, the primary driver for iron ore demand.

For Ferrous Resources, the key performance driver has historically been from demand for raw materials from Chinese steelmakers. For the period June 1, through December 31, , Ferrous Resources has been concentrating on sales in Brazil, where the best margins are being captured.

The iron ore industry is characterized by intense competition and a high level of market concentration.

Ferrous Resources competes with a number of large international mining companies, many of which have mineral and financial resources substantially greater than those of Ferrous Resources.

Viskase is a worldwide leader in the production and sale of cellulosic, fibrous and plastic casings for the processed meat and poultry industry.

Viskase operates nine manufacturing facilities, six distribution centers and three service centers throughout North America, Europe, South America and Asia.

Viskase believes it is one of the two largest worldwide producers of non-edible cellulosic casings for processed meats and one of the three largest manufacturers of non-edible fibrous casings.

Viskase has been successful in implementing production cost-savings initiatives and will continue to pursue similar opportunities that enhance its profitability and competitive positioning as a leader in the casing market.

Viskase has seven manufacturing or finishing facilities located outside the continental United States: Viskase continues to explore opportunities to expand in emerging markets.

While overall consumption of processed meat products in North America and Western Europe is stable, market growth is driven by increasing demand in Eastern Europe, South America and the Asia Pacific region.

Our Real Estate operations consist of rental real estate, property development and associated club activities. Our rental real estate operations consist primarily of retail, office and industrial properties leased to single corporate tenants.

Historically, substantially all of our real estate assets leased to others have been net-leased under long-term leases. With certain exceptions, these tenants are required to pay all expenses relating to the leased property and, therefore, we are typically not responsible for payment of expenses, including maintenance, utilities, taxes, insurance or any capital items associated with such properties.

Our property development operations are run primarily through Bayswater Development LLC, a real estate investment, management and development subsidiary that focuses primarily on the construction and sale of single-family and multi-family homes, lots in subdivisions and planned communities and raw land for residential development.

Our New Seabury development property in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and our Grand Harbor development property in Vero Beach, Florida include land for future residential development of approximately and 1, units of residential housing, respectively.

Both our developments operate golf and club operations as well. Our long-term investment horizon and operational expertise allow us to acquire properties with limited current income and complex entitlement and development issues.

Our Real Estate business strategy is based on our long-term investment outlook. We maximize the value of our commercial lease portfolio through effective management of existing properties and disposal of assets on an opportunistic basis.

We continue to market our remaining residential product and to build new homes as market conditions warrant. Sales activity for our real estate developments in Cape Cod typically peak in late winter and early spring, while in Florida our peak selling season is during the winter months.

No employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We acquired a controlling interest in WestPoint International, Inc. During , we acquired additional shares of WPI common stock.

WPH differentiates itself in the home fashion textile industry based on its plus-year heritage of providing its customers. WPH markets a broad range of manufactured and sourced bed, bath, basic bedding and other textile products, including sheets, pillowcases, bedspreads, quilts, comforters and duvet covers, bath and beach towels, bath accessories, bed skirts, bed pillows, flocked blankets, woven blankets and throws and mattress pads.

WPH manufactures and sources its products in a wide assortment of colors and patterns from a variety of fabrics, including chambray, twill, sateen, and from a variety of fibers, including cotton, synthetics and cotton blends.

WPH seeks to position its business as a single-source supplier to retailers of home fashion products, offering a broad assortment of products across multiple price points.

WPH believes that product and price point breadth allows it to provide a comprehensive product offering for each major distribution channel. WPH transitioned the majority of its manufacturing to Bahrain , a low-cost country, and continues to maintain its corporate offices and certain distribution operations in the United States.

Beginning with its purchase of the assets of WestPoint Stevens in , WPH has been focused on restructuring its business by reducing costs and improving profitability.

These actions have included moving manufacturing operations overseas, reducing labor costs, attempting to source goods at lower prices and addressing unfavorable licensing arrangements.

WPH has also been focused on significant restructuring in the United States, which has included streamlining its merchandising, sales, customer service, finance divisions and its distribution process.

WPH believes its principal manufacturing facility in Bahrain allows it to benefit from competitive labor rates, attractive incentives, low energy costs and a favorable tax treaty.

WPH currently has one non-U. WPH regularly reviews the possibility of implementing additional cost-saving measures.

Brands, Trademarks and Licenses. WPH markets its products under trademarks, brand names and private labels, which it uses as merchandising tools to assist its customers in coordinating their product offerings and differentiating their products from those of their competitors.

WPH sells its home fashion products to, chain stores, mass merchants, department stores, specialty stores and warehouse clubs, both domestically and internationally.

The home fashion industry is fragmented and highly competitive. WPH competes with both foreign and domestic companies on, among other factors, the basis of price, quality, design and customer service.

WPH may also face competition in the future from companies that are currently third-party suppliers to WPH. Future success depends on the ability to remain competitive in the areas of marketing, product development, price, quality, brand names, manufacturing capabilities, distribution and order processing.

We seek to invest our available cash and cash equivalents in liquid investments with a view to enhancing returns as we continue to assess further acquisitions of, or investments in, operating businesses.

We may redeem our direct investment in the Investment Funds upon notice. We conduct our activities in a manner so as not to be deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act of , as amended, or the Investment Company Act.

In addition, we intend to structure our investments so as to continue to be taxed as a partnership rather than as a corporation under the applicable publicly traded partnership rules of the Internal Revenue Code of , as amended, or the Code.

Icahn Enterprises maintains a website at www. We provide access to our annual reports on Form K, quarterly reports on Form Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports free of charge through this website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with the SEC.

Paper copies of annual and periodic reports filed with the SEC may be obtained free of charge upon written request by contacting our headquarters at the address located on the front cover of this report or under Investor Relations on our website.

In addition, our corporate governance guidelines, including Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Audit Committee Charter, are available on our website under Corporate Governance and are available in print without charge to any stockholder requesting them.

The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, information statements, and other information regarding issuers like us who file electronically with the SEC.

Risks Relating to Our Structure. Our general partner and its control person could exercise their influence over us to your detriment.

In addition, if Mr. However, it is possible that we will not have sufficient funds at the time of the change of control to make the required repurchase of notes.

We have engaged, and in the future may engage, in transactions with our affiliates. We have invested and may in the future invest in entities in which Mr.

We also have purchased and may in the future purchase entities or investments from him or his affiliates. Although Icahn Enterprises GP has never received fees in connection with our investments, our partnership agreement allows for the payment of these fees.

Icahn may pursue other business opportunities in industries in which we compete and there is no requirement that any additional business opportunities be presented to us.

We continuously identify, evaluate and engage in discussions concerning potential investments and acquisitions, including potential investments in and acquisitions of affiliates of Mr.

There cannot be any assurance that any potential transactions that we consider will be completed. The market for our securities may be volatile.

In general, economic crises have caused substantial market volatility and unrest. Any such disruptions or future volatility may adversely affect the value of your securities.

Our ability to pay distributions will depend on numerous factors, including the availability of adequate cash flow from operations; the proceeds, if any, from divestitures; our capital requirements and other obligations; restrictions contained in our financing arrangements; and our issuances of additional equity and debt securities.

The availability of cash flow in the future depends as well upon events and circumstances outside our control, including prevailing economic and industry conditions and financial, business and similar factors.

No assurance can be given that we will be able to make distributions or as to the timing of any distribution. If distributions are made, there can be no assurance that holders of depositary units may not be required to recognize taxable income in excess of cash distributions made in respect of the period in which a distribution is made.

Our general partner manages and operates Icahn Enterprises. In addition, removal of the general partner may result in a default under our debt securities.

As a result, holders of depositary units have limited say in matters affecting our operations and others may find it difficult to attempt to gain control or influence our activities.

We conduct our businesses through Icahn Enterprises Holdings in several states. Maintenance of limited liability will require compliance with legal requirements of those states.

We are the sole limited partner of Icahn Enterprises Holdings. Limitations on the liability of a limited partner for the obligations of a limited partnership have not clearly been established in several states.

Further, under the laws of certain states, Icahn Enterprises might be liable for the amount of distributions made to Icahn Enterprises by Icahn Enterprises Holdings.

Under Delaware law, we may not make a distribution to holders of our depositary units if the distribution causes our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets.

Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and nonrecourse liabilities are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted.

Delaware law provides that a limited partner who receives such a distribution and knew at the time of the distribution that the distribution violated Delaware law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount for three years from the distribution date.

Additionally, under Delaware law an assignee who becomes a substituted limited partner of a limited partnership is liable for the obligations, if any, of the assignor to make contributions to the partnership.

However, such an assignee is not obligated for liabilities unknown to him or her at the time he or she became a limited partner if the liabilities could not be determined from the partnership agreement.

Our ability to maintain our current cash position or generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control.

This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. Our current businesses and businesses that we acquire may not generate sufficient cash to service our debt.

In addition, we may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or investments and future borrowings may not be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.

This amount includes interest on our senior notes as well as principal and interest on mortgages payable. Because credit ratings are an important factor influencing our ability to access capital and the terms of any new indebtedness, including covenants and interest rates, our ability to refinance our indebtedness could be adversely affected if our credit ratings were downgraded.

We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

We are a holding company and depend on the businesses of our subsidiaries to satisfy our obligations. We are a holding company.

In addition to cash and cash equivalents, U. Moreover, if we make significant investments in operating businesses, it is likely that we will reduce the liquid assets at Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings in order to fund those investments and the ongoing operations of our subsidiaries and in the Investment Funds.

Consequently, our cash flow and our ability to meet our debt service obligations and make distributions with respect to depositary units likely will depend on the cash flow of our subsidiaries, returns on our interests in the Investment Funds and the payment of funds to us by our subsidiaries in the form of dividends, distributions, loans or otherwise.

The operating results of our subsidiaries may not be sufficient to make distributions to us. In addition, our subsidiaries are not obligated to make funds available to us and distributions and intercompany transfers from our subsidiaries to us may be restricted by applicable law or covenants contained in debt agreements and other agreements to which these subsidiaries may be subject or enter into in the future.

The terms of certain debt agreements of our subsidiaries, or other entities in which we own equity, restrict dividends, distributions or loans to us.

To the degree any distributions and transfers are impaired or prohibited, our ability to make payments on our debt and to make distributions on our depositary units will be limited.

We or our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantially more debt. In the future, we and Icahn Enterprises Holdings may incur additional indebtedness if we comply with certain financial tests contained in the indentures that govern our senior notes.

However, our subsidiaries other than Icahn Enterprises Holdings are not subject to any of the covenants contained in the indentures governing our senior notes.

In addition, under the indenture governing our senior notes, certain important events, such as leveraged recapitalizations that would increase the level of our indebtedness, would not constitute a change of control.

Our failure to comply with the covenants contained under any of our debt instruments, including the indentures governing our outstanding senior notes, including our failure as a result of events beyond our control, could result in an event of default which would materially and adversely affect our financial condition.

If there were an event of default under one of our debt instruments, the holders of the defaulted debt could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that debt to be due and payable immediately.

In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument could result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments.

It is possible that, if the defaulted debt is accelerated, our assets and cash flow may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments and we cannot assure you that we would be able to refinance or restructure the payments on those debt securities.

We may be subject to the pension liabilities of our affiliates. These pension obligations include ongoing contributions to fund the plan, as well as liability for any unfunded liabilities that may exist at the time the plan is terminated.

In addition, the failure to pay these pension obligations when due may result in the creation of liens in favor of the pension plan or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation "PBGC" against the assets of each member of the controlled group.

ACF is a manufacturer and fabricator of specialty railcar parts and miscellaneous steel products from which certain of our subsidiaries purchase parts and steel products.

These liabilities could increase or decrease, depending on a number of factors, including future changes in benefits, investment returns, and the assumptions used to calculate the liability.

As members of the controlled group, we would be liable for any failure of ACF and Federal-Mogul to make ongoing pension contributions or to pay the unfunded liabilities upon a termination of the pension plans of ACF and Federal-Mogul.

In addition, other entities now or in the future within the controlled group in which we are included may have pension plan obligations that are, or may become, underfunded and we would be liable for any failure of such entities to make ongoing pension contributions or to pay the unfunded liabilities upon termination of such plans.

The obligation to report could cause us to seek to delay or reconsider the occurrence of such reportable events. Starfire Holding Corporation "Starfire" , which is Icahn, has undertaken to indemnify us and our subsidiaries from losses resulting from any imposition of certain pension funding or termination liabilities that may be imposed on us and our subsidiaries or our assets as a result of being a member of the Icahn controlled group.

The Starfire indemnity which does not extend to pension liabilities of our subsidiaries that would be imposed on us as a result of our interest in these subsidiaries and not as a result of Mr.

Nonetheless, Starfire may not be able to fund its indemnification obligations to us. We are subject to the risk of becoming an investment company. Registered investment companies are subject to extensive, restrictive and potentially adverse regulations relating to, among other things, operating methods, management, capital structure, dividends and transactions with affiliates.

Registered investment companies are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which we operate our business, nor are registered investment companies permitted to have many of the relationships that we have with our affiliated companies.

In order not to become an investment company required to register under the Investment Company Act, we monitor the value of our investments and structure transactions with an eye toward the Investment Company Act.

As a result, we may structure transactions in a less advantageous manner than if we did not have Investment Company Act concerns, or we may avoid otherwise economically desirable transactions due to those concerns.

In addition, events beyond our control, including significant appreciation or depreciation in the market value of certain of our publicly traded holdings or adverse developments with respect to our ownership of certain of our subsidiaries, could result in our inadvertently becoming an investment company.

If it were established that we were an investment company, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that we could become subject to monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, in an action brought by the SEC, that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with us undertaken during the period it was established that we were an unregistered investment company.

We may become taxable as a corporation. We believe that we have been and are properly treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

This allows us to pass through our income and deductions to our partners. However, the Internal Revenue Service "IRS" could challenge our partnership status and we could fail to qualify as a partnership for past years as well as future years.

Qualification as a partnership involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Code.

In addition, if we register under the Investment Company Act, it is likely that we would be treated as a corporation for U.

The cost of paying federal and possibly state income tax, either for past years or going forward could be a significant liability and would reduce our funds available to make distributions to holders of units, and to make interest and principal payments on our debt securities.

To meet the qualifying income test we may structure transactions in a manner which is less advantageous than if this were not a consideration, or we may avoid otherwise economically desirable transactions.

From time to time, legislative proposals have been introduced that, if enacted, could have a material and adverse effect on us. These proposals have included taxing publicly traded partnerships engaged in the Investment segment, such as us, as corporations and introducing substantive changes to the definition of qualifying income, which could make it more difficult or impossible to for us to meet the exception that allows publicly traded partnerships generating qualifying income to be treated as partnerships rather than corporations for U.

It is unclear when or if such legislation would be introduced, whether or not such legislation would be enacted, what specific provisions would be included or what the effective date would be, and as a result the ultimate impact on us of such legislation is uncertain.

It is possible that if carried interest legislation were enacted we would be treated as an association, taxable as a corporation, which would materially increase our taxes.

As an alternative, we might be required to restructure our operations, and possibly dispose of certain businesses, in order to avoid or mitigate the impact of any such legislation.

Holders of depositary units may be required to pay tax on their share of our income even if they did not receive cash distributions from us. Because we are treated as a partnership for income tax purposes, holders of units are generally required to pay federal income tax, and, in some cases, state or local income tax, on the portion of our taxable income allocated to them, whether or not such income is distributed.

Accordingly, it is possible that holders of depositary units may not receive cash distributions from us equal to their share of our taxable income, or even equal to their tax liability on the portion of our income allocated to them.

If we discover significant deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting or at any recently acquired entity, it may adversely affect our ability to provide timely and reliable financial information and satisfy our reporting obligations under federal securities laws, which also could affect the market price of our depositary units or our ability to remain listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, or NASDAQ.

Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company.

If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. Ineffective internal and disclosure controls could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our depositary units or the rating of our debt.

During the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, , management of Federal-Mogul determined that it had a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting related to in the operating effectiveness of its information technology IT general controls.

More specifically, Federal-Mogul was not consistently following its processes and procedures during to execute and monitor change management controls or to restrict or monitor access to certain of its IT systems.

These processes and procedures are intended to ensure that access to financial applications and data is adequately restricted to appropriate personnel and that all changes affecting the financial applications and underlying account records are identified, authorized, tested and implemented appropriately.

Additionally, as a result of the deficiencies identified, there is a possibility that the effectiveness of business process controls that are dependent on the affected IT systems or data and financial reports generated from the affected IT systems may be adversely affected.

Since we are a limited partnership, you may not be able to pursue legal claims against us in U. We are a limited partnership organized under the laws of the State of Delaware.

Under the federal rules of civil procedure, you may not be able to sue us in federal court on claims other than those based solely on federal law, because of lack of complete diversity.

Case law applying diversity jurisdiction deems us to be a citizen of each of our limited partners. Because we are a publicly traded limited partnership, it may not be possible for you to attempt to sue us in a federal court because we have citizenship in all 50 U.

Accordingly, you will be limited to bringing any claims in state court. Certain members of our management team may be involved in other business activities that may involve conflicts of interest.

Certain individual members of our management team may, from time to time, be involved in the management of other businesses, including those owned or controlled by Mr.

Icahn and his affiliates. Accordingly, these individuals may focus a portion of their time and attention on managing these other businesses.

Conflicts may arise in the future between our interests and the interests of the other entities and business activities in which such individuals are involved.

We may not realize the potential benefits of our acquisitions. Any such acquisition, if consummated, could involve risks not presently faced by us.

In addition, we may not realize the anticipated benefits of any such acquisition. Risks Relating to Our Business.

In addition to the following risk factors specific to each of our businesses, all of our businesses are subject to the effects of the following: Global economic conditions may have adverse impacts on our businesses and financial condition.

Changes in economic conditions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, income from operations and our cash flows.

We and our subsidiaries are subject to cybersecurity risks and other cyber incidents resulting in disruption. Threats to information technology systems associated with cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents or attacks continue to grow.

We and our subsidiaries depend on information technology systems. In addition, certain of our subsidiaries, including in our Gaming segment, collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential customer information in the normal course of business.

Despite the security measures we have in place and any additional measures we may implement in the future, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, human errors, acts of vandalism or other events.

Any disruption of our systems or security breach or event resulting in the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, whether by us directly or our third-party service providers, could damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of litigation and liability, disrupt our business or otherwise affect our results of operations.

Our Investment segment may be materially and negatively affected by adverse conditions in the global financial markets and the economy generally.

There is significant risk that conditions in the global financial markets and the economy generally could deteriorate and experience volatility and illiquidity and these conditions could continue for a significant period of time.

In the event that some or all of these conditions occur, the Investment Funds could be materially and adversely affected in many different ways.

Furthermore, difficult market conditions may also increase the risk of default with respect to debt investments held by the Investment Funds.

Many other factors beyond the control of our Investment segment may adversely affect the Investment Funds, including, without limitation, rising interest rates, inflation, terrorism or political uncertainty.

The historical financial information for our Investment segment is not necessarily indicative of its future performance. The financial results of our Investment segment are primarily driven by the performance of the Investment Funds and our interests therein.

The historical consolidated financial information contained elsewhere in this Report is not indicative of the. In particular, with respect to the historical returns of our Investment segment: We cannot assure you that any of the foregoing will succeed.

This risk may be magnified due to concentration of investments and investments in undervalued securities. There are numerous and significant risks associated with these investments, certain of which are described in this risk factor and in other risk factors set forth herein.

Certain investment positions held by the Investment Funds may be illiquid. The Investment Funds may own restricted or non-publicly traded securities and securities traded on foreign exchanges.

These investments could prevent the Investment Funds from liquidating unfavorable positions promptly and subject the Investment Funds to substantial losses.

The Investment Funds seek to invest in securities that are undervalued. The identification of investment opportunities in undervalued securities is a difficult task, and there are no assurances that such opportunities will be successfully recognized or acquired.

While investments in undervalued securities offer the opportunity for above-average capital appreciation, these investments involve a high degree of financial risk and can result in substantial losses.

From time to time, the Investment Funds may invest in bonds or other fixed income securities, such as commercial paper and higher yielding and, therefore, higher risk debt securities.

It is likely that a major economic recession could severely disrupt the market for such securities and may have a material adverse impact on the value of such securities.

In addition, it is likely that any such economic downturn could adversely affect the ability of the issuers of such securities to repay principal and pay interest thereon and increase the incidence of default for such securities.

In particular, purchasing assets at what may appear to be undervalued levels is no guarantee that these assets will not be trading at even more undervalued levels at a future time of valuation or at the time of sale.

The prices of financial instruments in which the Investment Funds may invest can be highly volatile. The Investment Funds are subject to the risk of failure of any of the exchanges on which their positions trade or of their clearinghouses.

The use of leverage in investments by the Investment Funds may pose a significant degree of risk and may enhance the possibility of significant loss in the value of the investments in the Investment Funds.

The Investment Funds may leverage their capital if their general partners believe that the use of leverage may enable the Investment Funds to achieve a higher rate of return.

Accordingly, the Investment Funds may pledge its securities in order to borrow additional funds for investment purposes. The Investment Funds may also leverage its investment return with options, short sales, swaps, forwards and other derivative instruments.

The amount of borrowings that the Investment Funds may have outstanding at any time may be substantial in relation to their capital.

Accordingly, any event that adversely affects the value of an investment by the Investment Funds would be magnified to the extent such fund is leveraged.

There is no assurance that leverage will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. In general, the use of short-term margin borrowings results in certain additional risks to the Investment Funds.

Any of the Investment Funds may enter into repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. The use of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements by any of the Investment Funds involves certain risks.

For example, if the seller of securities to the Investment Funds under a reverse repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Investment Funds will seek to dispose of such securities, which action could involve costs or delays.

Finally, if a seller defaults on its obligation to repurchase securities under a reverse repurchase agreement, the Investment Funds may suffer a loss to the extent it is forced to liquidate its position in the market, and proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase price agreed to by the defaulting seller.

The financing used by the Investment Funds to leverage its portfolio will be extended by securities brokers and dealers in the marketplace in which the Investment Funds invest.

While the Investment Funds will attempt to negotiate the terms of these financing arrangements with such brokers and dealers, its ability to do so will be limited.

Because the Investment Funds currently have no alternative credit facility which could be used to finance its portfolio in the absence of financing from broker-dealers, it could be forced to liquidate its portfolio on short notice to meet its financing obligations.

The possibility of increased regulation could result in additional burdens on our Investment segment. Changes in tax law could adversely affect us.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Reform Act, was enacted into law in July , resulted in new regulations affecting almost every part of the financial services industry.

The regulatory environment in which our Investment segment operates is subject to further regulation in addition to the rules already promulgated.

Our Investment segment may be adversely affected by the enactment of new or revised regulations, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of rules and regulations imposed by the SEC, other U.

Additionally, the securities and futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. The SEC, other regulators and self-regulatory organizations and exchanges have taken and are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of market emergencies.

The regulation of derivatives transactions and funds that engage in such transactions is an. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Investment Funds and the Investment segment could be substantial and adverse.

In addition, legislative proposals have been introduced that, if enacted, could have a material and adverse effect on us.

These proposals have included taxing publicly traded partnerships engaged in the Investment segment, such as us, as corporations and introducing substantive changes to the definition of qualifying income, which could make it more difficult or impossible to for us to meet the exception that allows publicly traded partnerships generating qualifying income to be treated as partnerships rather than corporations of U.

It is unclear when or if such legislation would be introduced, whether or not such legislation would be enacted, what specific provisions would be included or what the effective date would be, and as a result the ultimate impact on us of any such legislation is uncertain.

We currently cannot predict the outcome of such legislative proposals, including, if enacted, their impact on our operations and financial position.

The failure of Mr. Icahn to participate in the management of the Investment Funds could have a material adverse effect on the Investment Funds and on us.

Subjective decisions made by employees of our Investment segment may cause the Investment Funds to incur losses or to miss profit opportunities on which the Investment Funds would otherwise have capitalized.

In the event that Mr. Icahn ceases to participate in the management of the Investment Funds, the consequences to the Investment Funds and our interest in them could be material and adverse and could lead to the premature termination of the Investment Funds.

The loss of Mr. Icahn could, therefore, ultimately result in a loss of substantially all of the earnings of our Investment segment. The Investment Funds make investments in companies we do not control.

Investments by the Investment Funds include investments in debt or equity securities of publicly traded companies that we do not control. Such investments may be acquired by the Investment Funds through open market trading activities or through purchases of securities from the issuer.

These investments will be subject to the risk that the company in which the investment is made may make business, financial or management decisions with which our Investment segment disagree or that the majority of stakeholders or the management of the company may take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve the best interests of the Investment Funds.

In addition, the Investment Funds may make investments in which it shares control over the investment with co-investors, which may make it more difficult for it to implement its investment approach or exit the investment when it otherwise would.

If any of the foregoing were to occur, the values of the investments by the Investment Funds could decrease and our Investment segment revenues could suffer as a result.

The ability to hedge investments successfully is subject to numerous risks. The success of any hedging activities will depend, in part, upon the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the portfolio investments being hedged.

However, hedging techniques may not always be possible or effective in limiting potential risks of loss. While the Investment Funds may enter into hedging transactions to seek to reduce risk, such transactions may result in a poorer overall performance for the Investment Funds than if it had not engaged in such hedging transactions.

For a variety of reasons, the Investment Funds may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between the hedging instruments utilized and the portfolio holdings being hedged.

Such an imperfect correlation may prevent the Investment Funds from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Investment Funds to risk of loss.

The Investment Funds do not intend to seek to hedge every position and may determine not to hedge against a particular risk for various reasons, including, but not limited to, because they do not regard the probability of the risk occurring to be sufficiently high as to justify the cost of the hedge.

Our Investment segment may not foresee the occurrence of the risk and therefore may not hedge against all risks. We are subject to third-party litigation risks attributable to our Investment segment that could result in significant liabilities that could adversely affect our Investment operations.

Some of the tactics that the Investment Funds may use involve litigation. The Investment Funds could be a party to lawsuits that they initiate or that are initiated by a company in which the Investment Funds invest, other shareholders, or state and federal governmental bodies.

There can be no assurance that litigation, once begun, would be resolved in favor of the Investment Funds. In such actions, we would be obligated to bear legal, settlement and other costs which may exceed our available insurance coverage.

In addition, our rights to indemnification from the applicable Investment Funds may be challenged. The Investment Funds may invest in companies that are based outside of the United States, which may expose the Investment Funds to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the United States.

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